BLISTER AGENTS AND THEIR EFFECTS
Agent + (Code)
Ethyldichloroarsine (ED)
Lewisite (L)
Mustard Lewisite (HL)
Distilled (Sulphur) Mustard (HD)
Nitrogen Mustard
(HN-1)
(HN-2)
(HN-3)
Phosgene Oximine (CX)
Methyldichlor-
oarsine
(MD)
Form at 68oF
Colorless liquid Dark brown or yellow oily liquid Colorless to pale yellow liquid Yellow to dark brown or black liquid Colorless solid or liquid Colorless liquid
Odor
Rotten fruit May resemble geraniums Garlic Garlic Fishy or musty (HN-1)
Soapy to fruity
(HN-2)
Nearly none
(HN-3)
Sharp and penetrating None or rotten fruit
Persistence at
70-90oF

1 - 3 days 18 - 36 hours 1 - 2 days 1 - 3 days 1 - 2 days (HN-1)
1 - 1-1/2 days
(HN-2)
2 - 3 days
(HN-3)
2 - 4 hours 2 - 4 hours
Persistence at
40-60oF
2 - 6 days 2 - 3 days 2 - 6 days 2 - 4 days (HN-1)
2 - 3 days
(HN-2)
4 - 6 days
(HN-3)
3 - 6 hours 4 - 8 hours
Onset of
Symptoms
Very Rapid Rapid Delayed Delayed hours to days Delayed Immediate Rapid
Symptoms of
Skin Exposure
Immediate irritation; delayed blisters Immediate stinging pain. Skin redness in 30 minutes; pain lasts 24 hours. Blisters in 12 hr.; pain lasting 2 - 3 days. Deep skin burns. Eyes - instant pain, severe permanent damage or blindness within 1 min. Eyes are very susceptible; skin less so. There can be rapid penetration without irritation or swelling, blisters and reddening in 4-24 hours depending on dose. Eye exposure causes tearing, light sensitivity, irritation of conjunctiva and cornea, severe necrosis and loss of eyesight. Blisters and reddens skin in 4 - 24 hours. Eyes tear and loss of eyesight possible. Powerful irritant to eyes and nose, corrosive to skin Immediate irritation, delayed blisters; Injures eyes;
Symptoms of
Inhaled Exposure
Damages respiratory tract Immediate burning pain. Profuse nasal secretions and violent sneezing. Cough and frothing mucous. Lung edema. Systemic poison causing restlessness, weakness, subnormal temperature and low blood pressure. In animal studies, large doses caused "dry land drowning" (drowns in own mucous) within 10 minutes. Delayed severe irritation, sneezing, coughing, and bronchitis, loss of appetite, diarrhea, fever, apathy Delayed severe irritation, sneezing, coughing, and bronchitis, loss of appetite, diarrhea, fever, apathy Damages lungs; victim "drowns" in own mucous Irritates respiratory tract; Injures lungs; Causes systemic poisoning
LD50 Skin Dose
mg/man
100,000 2.8 grams, 100,000 100 mg/kg 5,000 or 1,400 (liquid) 1,500 (HN-1)
N/A days
(HN-2)
1,500
(HN-3)
3,000 - 5,000 (est.)
LCt50 Inhaled
Dose mg-min/m3

3,000 - 5,000 3,000 - 5,000 900 20,000 (HN-1)
3,000
(HN-2)
10,000 (est.)
(HN-3)
3,200
Fatality
Illnesses caused can be fatal. Vesicants have a relatively low mortality rate when compared to other CW agents, but survivors usually require prolonged care and rehabilitation. Contact with vapor or liquid can be fatal. Illnesses caused can be fatal. Vesicants have a relatively low mortality rate when compared to other CW agents, but survivors usually require prolonged care and rehabilitation.
First Aid
Immediately flush eyes or skin. Dilute hypochlorite (0.5% solution) can be used on the skin. Cover blisters smaller than 3/4 inch and reddened areas with topical antibiotics, calamine lotion, or other soothing creams. Remove skin from fluid-filled blisters larger than 3/4 inch and irrigate them with sterile saline. Apply topical antibiotics such as silver sulfadiazine. Intense pain and itching may require systemic analgesics and antipruritics. For upper respiratory symptoms treat with humidified oxygen and cough suppressants. Reserve antibiotics for patients with pulmonary damage who develop fever. Specific antimicrobial therapy then is based on Gram stain and cultures. Eyes may be irrigated with normal saline, followed by application of topical antibiotics. Petroleum jelly can be applied to the edges of the lids to prevent them from sticking together. Artificial respiration if breathing has stopped; administer oxygen if breathing is difficult; seek medical attention immediately.
Eye Contact: speed in decontaminating eyes is essential; flush eyes immediately with water by tilting the head to the side, pulling eyelids apart with fingers, and pouring water slowly into the eyes; do not cover eyes with bandages; but can protect eyes with dark or opaque goggles.
Skin Contact: don respiratory protective masks and gloves; flush skin and clothes with 5% solution sodium hypochlorite or liquid household bleach within 1 minute; cut and remove contaminated clothing; flush contaminated skin area again with 5% sodium hypochlorite solution; then wash contaminated skin area with soap and water.
Ingestion: do not induce vomiting; give victim milk to drink. In all circumstances, seek medical attention immediately.
Treat as for Lewisite Immediately wash skin and clothes with 5% sodium hypochlorite solution or liquid household bleach within 1 min. Cut and remove clothing, flush skin area again with 5% sodium hypochlorite solution, then wash area with soap and water. Give oxygen or artificial respiration if needed. Mouth-to-mouth only when no facial contamination. Immediately flush eyes with water for 15 minutes. Don't bandage; use dark or opaque goggles. Treat blisters as burns. Don't induce vomiting. Give milk to drink. Wash off contamination immediately with water. Use local anathetics and antibiotics Treat blisters as burns. Rest. Immediately flush eyes or skin. Dilute hypochlorite (0.5% solution) can be used on the skin. Cover blisters smaller than 3/4 inch and reddened areas with topical antibiotics, calamine lotion, or other soothing creams. Remove skin from fluid-filled blisters larger than 3/4 inch and irrigate them with sterile saline. Apply topical antibiotics such as silver sulfadiazine. Intense pain and itching may require systemic analgesics and antipruritics. For upper respiratory symptoms treat with humidified oxygen and cough suppressants. Reserve antibiotics for patients with pulmonary damage who develop fever. Specific antimicrobial therapy then is based on Gram stain and cultures. Eyes may be irrigated with normal saline, followed by application of topical antibiotics. Petroleum jelly can be applied to the edges of the lids to prevent them from sticking together.


LD50
is the dose at which 50% of the exposed population will die.

A different measure, LCt50, is used for inhalation, the product of the concentration (C) and the length of exposure (t). Effective dosages for vapor are estimated for exposure durations of 2-10 minutes.

Ct50 is the dose concentration at which 50% of any group shows symptoms of exposure


This information may be used by you freely for noncommercial use only with
my name and email address attached.

hollydeyo@millennium-ark.net
http://millennium-ark.net
Contents 2001-2002 Holly Deyo. All rights reserved.