TEAR GAS AND RIOT CONTROL AGENTS AND THEIR EFFECTS
Agent + (Code)
Chloroaceto-
phenone
(CN)

(Mace)
Chloroaceto-
phenone
in Chloroform
(CNC)
Chloroaceto-
phenone + Chloropicrin in Chloroform
(CNS)
Chloroaceto-
phenone in Benzene + Carbon Tetrachloride
(CNB)
Bromoben-
zylcyanide
(CA)
O-Chloro-benzylmalo-nonitrile (CS)
(Pepper spray)
Form at 68oF
Solid Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Colorless to white solid
Odor
Apple blossoms Chloroform Flypaper Benzene Soured fruit Pepper
Persistence at
70-90oF

1 - 2 hours 1 - 2 hours 1 - 2 hours 1 - 2 hours 1 - 2 days 7 - 14 days
Persistence at
40-60oF
2 - 3 hours 2 - 3 hours 2 - 3 hours 2 - 3 hours 2 - 4 days 7 - 14 days
Onset of
Symptoms
Instant Instant Instant Instant Instant Instant
Symptoms of
Skin Exposure
Irritates eyes causing tears, difficulty breathing, nausea and headache. Burning and irritation of skin can occur especially if the skin is moist. Its hazards exist for inhalation, ingestion, and skin and eye exposure. CNS vapors may mix with sweat, causing skin irritation, especially the face. If allowed to penetrate clothing, CNS causes stinging under the armpits, elbows, knees, around the crotch and buttocks. Skin rashes may result after prolonged exposures. Extended eye exposure would not be recommended. Eyes involuntarily close. Irritates skin, especially face and exposed areas where sweat accumulates. CNB will penetrate clothing or adhere to it under long exposure. The same rashes caused by CN will be caused by CNB. CNB has a slightly more powerful choking effect than CN. Eye toxicity remains about the same as CN. Some sensitive individuals may experience nausea upon exposure. Severe burning sensation to mucous membranesm severe tearing, headache and nausea, vomiting. When mixed with human sweat it will cause a burning sensation to the face, esp. mouth, nose, and eyes. It will penetrate clothing, making the neck, armpits, skin behind elbows, knees, buttocks and crotch blister and have rashes. Extreme eye irritation, tears, coughing, cold-like symptoms, nausea, general illness. Will cause temporary redness that will last for up to 24 hours. Skin will be sensitive for 12 - 48 hours. No permanent affects have been reported.
Symptoms of
Inhaled Exposure
The use of alpha-chloroacetophenone as a riot-control agent has caused several deaths. Severe inhalation exposure causes pulmonary edema, which may have delayed onset. Produces nausea within a minute of inhalation by a moderately sensitive person. It makes victims gasp for air (inhaling more CNS) while causing discomfort to bronchial tubes and lung sacs. If inhaled for longer periods, vomiting, severe abdominal pains and cramps, and diarrhea are to be expected in its victims. Persons who are exposed to very large quantities of the vapors or liquid concentrations may suffer these symptoms for weeks. Will cause severe, temporary breathing spasms that will last from 15 - 45 minutes.
LD50 Skin Dose
mg/man
N/A N/A N/A N/A 8,000 - 11,000 (est.) N/A
LCt50 Inhaled
Dose mg-min/m3
3200 - 8,500 (est.) for 10 minutes 11,400 11,000 61,000
Fatality
Not lethal agents; used for riot control. NOTE: CN is available as Mace over-the-counter for personal protection. Serious effects including death have been reported, but usually such effects only occur with the combination of prolonged exposure and use in an enclosed space. Can form lethal concentrations in closed or confined spaces, although concentrations in open areas are highly unlikely ever to do so. The vapors can be lethal in enclosed or confined spaces within a few minutes without prior respiratory protection. Nausea can lead to unconsciousness which may mean suffocation. PS is the most lethal of tear gas agents and has been replaced as being too lethal for its intended effect, but not lethal enough to compete with more effective blistering and nerve agents.
First Aid
Treat cough with linctus codeine, plenty of warmth, rest and oxygen Wash eyes with warm water and breath fresh air, rest Inhalation: move victim to fresh air immediately; perform artificial respiration if breathing has stopped; keep victim warm, rest. Eye Contact: wash eyes immediately with copious amounts of water, lifting the lower and upper lids occasionally; do not wear contact lenses when working with this chemical. Skin Contact: wash contaminated skin with soap or mild detergent and water immediately; remove the contaminated clothing immediately; wash the skin using soap or mild detergent and water; seek medical attention immediately when there are chemical burns or evidence of skin irritation. Ingestion: induce vomiting by touching back of throat with finger or give syrup of ipecac as directed. Don't induce vomiting if victim is unconscious. Decontamination: None needed in the field; wash contaminated surfaces with a 5% solution by weight of sodium hydroxide in 95% alcohol or with a mixture of 20 parts water and 80 parts carbitol (diethylene glycol). In all cases, see medical attention. Inhalation: Seek medical attention immediately.
Eye Contact: Flush eyes with plenty of cool water. If heavily exposed watch closely for development of corneal opacity and iritis.
Skin Contact: Treat reddened skin with calamine lotion.Treat blisters as second degree burns.
Ingestion: Give victim milk to drink. In all cases, seek medical attention immediately.
Inhalation: Remove subject to fresh air. If subject stops breathing; initiate artificial respiration.
Eye Contact: Flush eyes with plenty of cool water. Use of a cold compress will help; wipe away excess capsicum with a pre-moistened towelette.
Skin Contact: Wash with soap and water.
Ingestion: Will cause an immediate spitting and choking response. Flush mouth with plenty of water.


LD50
is the dose at which 50% of the exposed population will die.

A different measure, LCt50, is used for inhalation, the product of the concentration (C) and the length of exposure (t). Effective dosages for vapor are estimated for exposure durations of 2-10 minutes.


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